Fishponds On Farms

Fishponds On Farms: Water Supply—Volume, Quality, and Temperature

Fishponds On Farms: Water Supply—Volume, Quality, and Temperature In a brood pond, a constant water level should be maintained at all times, especially during the breeding season. The required flow, which will vary with the character of the soil, must be sufficient to replace loss by evaporation and seepage.

An amount just short of overflowing the pond is the ideal to be attained, as it is desirable to avoid a current. A surplus of water is preferable to a shortage, as any excess may be easily diverted through waste channels or held as an emergency reserve.

For an l-acre pond, where the sides and bottom are of clay or rich loam, a flow of from 30 to 50 gallons per minute should be sufficient to maintain a proper water level at all times, while sandy or gravel goal untreated may require double that amount.

A practical method of measuring the flow of water from any source is as follows:

Select a stretch on the stream or ditch affording as straight and uniform a course as possible. If the water at any point is carried in a flume, it will be better to measure at that point. Lay off’ a distance of, say from 10 to 50 feet; measure the width of flowing water at about six different places in this distance and obtain its average width.

Likewise at these same points measure the depth of water at three or four places across the stream and obtain its average depth. Then drop a float in the water and note the number of seconds it takes to traverse the given distance.

The product obtained by multiplying the average width in feet by the average depth in feet by the velocity (expressed in number of feet per second) will give the flow of the stream in cubic feet per second.

From the figures obtained it is advisable to deduct about 20 per cent, as the surface velocity of water is in excess of the actual average velocity.

High temperatures in season are necessary in brooding and rearing ponds. If the water is cold at the source, the fault must be corrected by reducing the inflow to the lowest quantity that will maintain a uniform level, thus allowing the maximum absorption of warmth from the sun and air.

Water that does not fall below 60° F. in the brood pond during the spawning season is desirable.

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